A hex editor (or binary file editor or byteeditor) is a type of computer program that allows for manipulation of the fundamental binary data that constitutes a computer file. The name ‘hex’ comes from ‘hexadecimal’: a standard numerical format for representing binary data.
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A disassembler is a computer program that translates machine language into assembly language—the inverse operation to that of an assembler.
A disassembler differs from a decompiler, which targets a high-level language rather than an assembly language. Disassembly, the output of a disassembler, is often formatted for human-readability rather than suitability for input to an assembler, making it principally a reverse-engineering tool.
Detection and Classification
- AnalyzePE – Wrapper for a variety of tools for reporting on Windows PE files.
- Assemblyline – A scalable distributed file analysis framework.
- BinaryAlert – An open source, serverless AWS pipeline that scans and alerts on uploaded files based on a set of YARA rules.
- chkrootkit – Local Linux rootkit detection.
- ClamAV – Open source antivirus engine.
- Detect-It-Easy – A program for determining types of files.
- ExifTool – Read, write and edit file metadata.
- File Scanning Framework – Modular, recursive file scanning solution.
- hashdeep – Compute digest hashes with a variety of algorithms.
- Loki – Host based scanner for IOCs.
- Malfunction – Catalog and compare malware at a function level.
- MASTIFF – Static analysis framework.
- MultiScanner – Modular file scanning/analysis framework
- nsrllookup – A tool for looking up hashes in NIST’s National Software Reference Library database.
- packerid – A cross-platform Python alternative to PEiD.
- PEV – A multiplatform toolkit to work with PE files, providing feature-rich tools for proper analysis of suspicious binaries.
- Rootkit Hunter – Detect Linux rootkits.
- ssdeep – Compute fuzzy hashes.
- totalhash.py – Python script for easy searching of the TotalHash.cymru.com database.
- TrID – File identifier.
- YARA – Pattern matching tool for analysts.
- Yara rules generator – Generate yara rules based on a set of malware samples. Also contains a good strings DB to avoid false positives
Dynamic Binary Instrumentation
Mac Decrypting Tools
- Cerbero Profiler – Select all -> Copy to new file
- AppEncryptor – Tool for decrypting
- Class-Dump – use deprotect option
- readmem – OS X Reverser’s process dumping tool
Document Analysis Tools
This introductory malware dynamic analysis class is dedicated to people who are starting to work on malware analysis or who want to know what kinds of artifacts left by malware can be detected via various tools.
The class will be a hands-on class where students can use various tools to look for how malware is: Persisting, Communicating, and Hiding
- Process Explorer
- Process Monitor
- API Monitor
- Objective-See Utilities
- XCode Instruments – XCode Instruments for Monitoring Files and Processes User Guide
- dtrace – sudo dtruss = strace dtrace recipes
- fs_usage – report system calls and page faults related to filesystem activity in real-time. File I/O: fs_usage -w -f filesystem
- dmesg – display the system message buffer
Reverse XOR and other code obfuscation methods.
- Balbuzard – A malware analysis tool for reversing obfuscation (XOR, ROL, etc) and more.
- de4dot – .NET deobfuscator and unpacker.
- ex_pe_xor & iheartxor – Two tools from Alexander Hanel for working with single-byte XOR encoded files.
- FLOSS – The FireEye Labs Obfuscated String Solver uses advanced static analysis techniques to automatically deobfuscate strings from malware binaries.
- NoMoreXOR – Guess a 256 byte XOR key using frequency analysis.
- PackerAttacker – A generic hidden code extractor for Windows malware.
- unpacker – Automated malware unpacker for Windows malware based on WinAppDbg.
- unxor – Guess XOR keys using known-plaintext attacks.
- VirtualDeobfuscator – Reverse engineering tool for virtualization wrappers.
- XORBruteForcer – A Python script for brute forcing single-byte XOR keys.
- XORSearch & XORStrings – A couple programs from Didier Stevens for finding XORed data.
- xortool – Guess XOR key length, as well as the key itself.
IN this List we could see the tools for Disassemblers, debuggers, and other static and dynamic analysis tools.
- angr – Platform-agnostic binary analysis framework developed at UCSB’s Seclab.
- bamfdetect – Identifies and extracts information from bots and other malware.
- BAP – Multiplatform and open source (MIT) binary analysis framework developed at CMU’s Cylab.
- BARF – Multiplatform, open source Binary Analysis and Reverse engineering Framework.
- binnavi – Binary analysis IDE for reverse engineering based on graph visualization.
- Binary ninja – A reversing engineering platform that is an alternative to IDA.
- Binwalk – Firmware analysis tool.
- Bokken – GUI for Pyew and Radare. (mirror)
- Capstone – Disassembly framework for binary analysis and reversing, with support for many architectures and bindings in several languages.
- codebro – Web based code browser using clang to provide basic code analysis.
- DECAF (Dynamic Executable Code Analysis Framework) – A binary analysis platform based on QEMU. DroidScope is now an extension to DECAF.
- dnSpy – .NET assembly editor, decompiler and debugger.
- Evan’s Debugger (EDB) – A modular debugger with a Qt GUI.
- Fibratus – Tool for exploration and tracing of the Windows kernel.
- FPort – Reports open TCP/IP and UDP ports in a live system and maps them to the owning application.
- GDB – The GNU debugger.
- GEF – GDB Enhanced Features, for exploiters and reverse engineers.
- hackers-grep – A utility to search for strings in PE executables including imports, exports, and debug symbols.
- Hopper – The macOS and Linux Disassembler.
- IDA Pro – Windows disassembler and debugger, with a free evaluation version.
- Immunity Debugger – Debugger for malware analysis and more, with a Python API.
- ILSpy – ILSpy is the open-source .NET assembly browser and decompiler.
- LIEF – LIEF provides a cross-platform library to parse, modify and abstract ELF, PE and MachO formats.
- ltrace – Dynamic analysis for Linux executables.
- objdump – Part of GNU binutils, for static analysis of Linux binaries.
- OllyDbg – An assembly-level debugger for Windows executables.
- PANDA – Platform for Architecture-Neutral Dynamic Analysis.
- PEDA – Python Exploit Development Assistance for GDB, an enhanced display with added commands.
- pestudio – Perform static analysis of Windows executables.
- Pharos – The Pharos binary analysis framework can be used to perform automated static analysis of binaries.
- plasma – Interactive disassembler for x86/ARM/MIPS.
- PPEE (puppy) – A Professional PE file Explorer for reversers, malware researchers and those who want to statically inspect PE files in more detail.
- Process Explorer – Advanced task manager for Windows.
- Process Hacker – Tool that monitors system resources.
- Process Monitor – Advanced monitoring tool for Windows programs.
- PSTools – Windows command-line tools that help manage and investigate live systems.
- Pyew – Python tool for malware analysis.
- PyREBox – Python scriptable reverse engineering sandbox by the Talos team at Cisco.
- QKD – QEMU with embedded WinDbg server for stealth debugging.
- Radare2 – Reverse engineering framework, with debugger support.
- RegShot – Registry compare utility that compares snapshots.
- RetDec – Retargetable machine-code decompiler with an online decompilation service and API that you can use in your tools.
- ROPMEMU – A framework to analyze, dissect and decompile complex code-reuse attacks.
- SMRT – Sublime Malware Research Tool, a plugin for Sublime 3 to aid with malware analyis.
- strace – Dynamic analysis for Linux executables.
- Triton – A dynamic binary analysis (DBA) framework.
- Udis86 – Disassembler library and tool for x86 and x86_64.
- Vivisect – Python tool for malware analysis.
- WinDbg – multipurpose debugger for the Microsoft Windows computer operating system, used to debug user mode applications, device drivers, and the kernel-mode memory dumps.
- X64dbg – An open-source x64/x32 debugger for windows.
Binary Format and Binary Analysis
The Compound File Binary Format is the basic container used by several different Microsoft file formats such as Microsoft Office documents and Microsoft Installer packages.
A decompiler is a computer program that takes an executable file as input, and attempts to create a high level source file which can be recompiled successfully. It is therefore the opposite of a compiler, which takes a source file and makes an executable.
Online Scanners and Sandboxes
Following Tools are using for Web-based multi-AV scanners, and malware sandboxes for automated analysis.
- anlyz.io – Online sandbox.
- AndroTotal – Free online analysis of APKs against multiple mobile antivirus apps.
- AVCaesar – Malware.lu online scanner and malware repository.
- Cryptam – Analyze suspicious office documents.
- Cuckoo Sandbox – Open source, self hosted sandbox and automated analysis system.
- cuckoo-modified – Modified version of Cuckoo Sandbox released under the GPL. Not merged upstream due to legal concerns by the author.
- cuckoo-modified-api – A Python API used to control a cuckoo-modified sandbox.
- DeepViz – Multi-format file analyzer with machine-learning classification.
- detux – A sandbox developed to do traffic analysis of Linux malwares and capturing IOCs.
- DRAKVUF – Dynamic malware analysis system.
- firmware.re – Unpacks, scans and analyzes almost any firmware package.
- HaboMalHunter – An Automated Malware Analysis Tool for Linux ELF Files.
- Hybrid Analysis – Online malware analysis tool, powered by VxSandbox.
- IRMA – An asynchronous and customizable analysis platform for suspicious files.
- Joe Sandbox – Deep malware analysis with Joe Sandbox.
- Jotti – Free online multi-AV scanner.
- Limon – Sandbox for Analyzing Linux Malware.
- Malheur – Automatic sandboxed analysis of malware behavior.
- malsub – A Python RESTful API framework for online malware and URL analysis services.
- Malware config – Extract, decode and display online the configuration settings from common malwares.
- Malwr – Free analysis with an online Cuckoo Sandbox instance.
- MASTIFF Online – Online static analysis of malware.
- Metadefender.com – Scan a file, hash or IP address for malware (free).
- NetworkTotal – A service that analyzes pcap files and facilitates the quick detection of viruses, worms, trojans, and all kinds of malware using Suricata configured with EmergingThreats Pro.
- Noriben – Uses Sysinternals Procmon to collect information about malware in a sandboxed environment.
- PDF Examiner – Analyse suspicious PDF files.
- ProcDot – A graphical malware analysis tool kit.
- Recomposer – A helper script for safely uploading binaries to sandbox sites.
- Sand droid – Automatic and complete Android application analysis system.
- SEE – Sandboxed Execution Environment (SEE) is a framework for building test automation in secured Environments.
- VirusTotal – Free online analysis of malware samples and URLs
- Visualize_Logs – Open source visualization library and command line tools for logs. (Cuckoo, Procmon, more to come…)
- Zeltser’s List – Free automated sandboxes and services, compiled by Lenny Zeltser.
Document Analysis Tools
- IDA Python Src
- IDC Functions Doc
- Using IDAPython to Make your Life Easier
- Introduction to IDA Python
- The Beginner’s Guide to IDA Python
- IDA Plugin Contest
- onehawt IDA Plugin List
- pefile Python Libray
Tools for dissecting malware in memory images or running systems.
- BlackLight – Windows/MacOS forensics client supporting hiberfil, pagefile, raw memory analysis.
- DAMM – Differential Analysis of Malware in Memory, built on Volatility.
- evolve – Web interface for the Volatility Memory Forensics Framework.
- FindAES – Find AES encryption keys in memory.
- inVtero.net – High speed memory analysis framework developed in .NET supports all Windows x64, includes code integrity and write support.
- Muninn – A script to automate portions of analysis using Volatility, and create a readable report.
- Rekall – Memory analysis framework, forked from Volatility in 2013.
- TotalRecall – Script based on Volatility for automating various malware analysis tasks.
- VolDiff – Run Volatility on memory images before and after malware execution, and report changes.
- Volatility – Advanced memory forensics framework.
- VolUtility – Web Interface for Volatility Memory Analysis framework.
- WDBGARK – WinDBG Anti-RootKit Extension.
- WinDbg – Live memory inspection and kernel debugging for Windows systems.
- AChoir – A live incident response script for gathering Windows artifacts.
- python-evt – Python library for parsing Windows Event Logs.
- python-registry – Python library for parsing registry files.
- RegRipper (GitHub) – Plugin-based registry analysis tool.
- Aleph – Open Source Malware Analysis Pipeline System.
- CRITs – Collaborative Research Into Threats, a malware and threat repository.
- FAME – A malware analysis framework featuring a pipeline that can be extended with custom modules, which can be chained and interact with each other to perform end-to-end analysis.
- Malwarehouse – Store, tag, and search malware.
- Polichombr – A malware analysis platform designed to help analysts to reverse malwares collaboratively.
- stoQ – Distributed content analysis framework with extensive plugin support, from input to output, and everything in between.
- Viper – A binary management and analysis framework for analysts and researchers.
Malware samples collected for analysis.
- Clean MX – Realtime database of malware and malicious domains.
- Contagio – A collection of recent malware samples and analyses.
- Exploit Database – Exploit and shellcode samples.
- Malshare – Large repository of malware actively scrapped from malicious sites.
- MalwareDB – Malware samples repository.
- Open Malware Project – Sample information and downloads. Formerly Offensive Computing.
- Ragpicker – Plugin based malware crawler with pre-analysis and reporting functionalities
- theZoo – Live malware samples for analysts.
- Tracker h3x – Agregator for malware corpus tracker and malicious download sites.
- ViruSign – Malware database that detected by many anti malware programs except ClamAV.
- VirusShare – Malware repository, registration required.
- VX Vault – Active collection of malware samples.
- Zeltser’s Sources – A list of malware sample sources put together by Lenny Zeltser.
- Zeus Source Code – Source for the Zeus trojan leaked in 2011.
Reverse Engineering Courses
- Lenas Reversing for Newbies
- Open Security Training
- Dr. Fu’s Malware Analysis
- Binary Auditing Course
- TiGa’s Video Tutorials
- Legend of Random
- Modern Binary Exploitation
- RPISEC Malware Course
- SANS FOR 610 GREM
- REcon Training
- Blackhat Training
- Offensive Security
- Corelan Training
- Offensive and Defensive Android Reversing
Inspect domains and IP addresses.
- badips.com – Community based IP blacklist service.
- boomerang – A tool designed for consistent and safe capture of off network web resources.
- Cymon – Threat intelligence tracker, with IP/domain/hash search.
- Desenmascara.me – One click tool to retrieve as much metadata as possible for a website and to assess its good standing.
- Dig – Free online dig and other network tools.
- dnstwist – Domain name permutation engine for detecting typo squatting, phishing and corporate espionage.
- IPinfo – Gather information about an IP or domain by searching online resources.
- Machinae – OSINT tool for gathering information about URLs, IPs, or hashes. Similar to Automator.
- mailchecker – Cross-language temporary email detection library.
- MaltegoVT – Maltego transform for the VirusTotal API. Allows domain/IP research, and searching for file hashes and scan reports.
- Multi rbl – Multiple DNS blacklist and forward confirmed reverse DNS lookup over more than 300 RBLs.
- NormShield Services – Free API Services for detecting possible phishing domains, blacklisted ip addresses and breached accounts.
- SpamCop – IP based spam block list.
- SpamHaus – Block list based on domains and IPs.
- Sucuri SiteCheck – Free Website Malware and Security Scanner.
- Talos Intelligence – Search for IP, domain or network owner. (Previously SenderBase.)
- TekDefense Automater – OSINT tool for gathering information about URLs, IPs, or hashes.
- URLQuery – Free URL Scanner.
- Whois – DomainTools free online whois search.
- Zeltser’s List – Free online tools for researching malicious websites, compiled by Lenny Zeltser.
- ZScalar Zulu – Zulu URL Risk Analyzer.